Luke writes that the birth of Jesus happened at the time of a census ordered by Caesar Augustus. According to Luke 2:1, Quirinius was the then governor of Syria.

In accordance with this edict by Caesar, Joseph who lived in Nazareth of Galilee went to his ancestral city of Bethlehem in Judea to be enrolled.

So, Luke demarcates the birth of Jesus through historical, political and geographical boundaries.

By placing the birth of Jesus within the concrete historical parameters of the reign of Caesar Augustus, Luke subtly makes a comparison between Caesar Augustus and Christ.

For Luke, “Who is the real Prince of Peace – Caesar or Christ?” is a big question he wants to answer.

The Circumstance of Luke’s Christmas Story

It is Luke alone who mentions that Jesus was born at a time when the Roman Emperor, Caesar Augustus, had given out a decree for a census.

Scholars have disputed about the historicity of the census, but a better approach to understanding Luke’s Gospel is to move beyond ‘Luke the historian’ to ‘Luke the theologian’.

This helps us to understand that Luke’s writing had underlying theological purposes and history is used in writing the book theologically.

Therefore, our main concern is not whether Luke’s account here passes that historical scrutiny but rather it is the purpose and motive of his writing.

One of the main intentions of Luke in writing the Gospel is to present a political apology to the Romans on behalf of the Christians.

To show that Jesus was not an insurrectionist who instigated people to rise up against the Roman Empire and also to argue that his followers are politically harmless.

Hence, Luke begins his story with Joseph and Mary travelling to Bethlehem to be enrolled in accordance with the Emperor’s decree during which Jesus is born.

In order to understand this point more clearly, we need to examine who was this Caesar Augustus and what kind of person/emperor he was. How did the people consider him?

This will enable us to comprehend how Luke presents Jesus as the true Prince of Peace.

Who is Caesar Augustus?

The word “Caesar” is a title given to the Roman Emperors.

The Emperor who is mentioned in Luke 2:1 is Gaius Octavian (or Octavianus, Octavius). He was born on September 23, 63 B.C. at Nola in Italy. He reigned over Rome from 27 B.C. till his death on August 19, A.D. 14.

Gaius Octavian was the nephew of Julius Caesar who adopted him in 44 B.C. after which he was also known as Gaius Julius Caesar Octavius.

After the assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 B.C. by Brutus and Cassius, the empire was divided into three and Gaius Octavian got one portion while the other two went to Julius Caesar’s generals Mark Anthony and Aemilius Lepidus.

Now a triumvirate ruled over Rome. Avenging the killing of Julius Caesar, Gaius Octavian along with Anthony and Lepidus defeated and executed Brutus and Cassius in 42 B.C. at Philippi.

However, Octavian was a shrewd person and hence he defeated Lepidus in 36 B.C. and amalgamated his kingdom into his.

Later on, he defeated Anthony and his beloved Cleopatra, the Queen of Egypt in 31 B.C. making himself the sole ruler of Rome.

When he defeated both Lepidus and Anthony, thereby bringing an end to the triumvirate, he buried the long history of war and conflict for the throne that ensued the assassination of Julius Caesar and ushered in peace to the Roman world.

Pax Romana (Roman Peace)

Recognizing the peace and tranquillity that Octavian had ushered into Rome, the Roman Senate bestowed on him the title “Augustus” in 27 B.C. Octavian ruled over the whole of the Roman Empire from 27 B.C.-A.D. 14.

He also changed the names of two months in the Roman calendar to July and August honouring both his uncle and himself (July for Julius Caesar and August for Augustus).

There was great prosperity in the Roman world during his reign. He established the Pax Romana (Roman Peace), also called Pax Augusta, throughout his empire.

Roads and communication systems were constructed for easy mobility of the people, particularly for the Roman army.

As he brought peace to the world, Octavian was called the “prince of peace” by the Romans and was acknowledged as “the divine saviour who has brought peace to the world.”

Not only that the Romans honoured him by calling him the “inaugurator of peace on earth.”

Gradually, their respect for him developed into their worship of him as a “god” and “divine” which may be the beginning of “emperor worship” among the Romans, and against this background, many books of the New Testament were written.

Similarly, the birthday of Octavian, September 23, became the New Year day in the calendar of Emperor worship which was commemorated as the “day of the arrival of the good news (or gospel) to the world.”

Who is the Real “Prince of Peace”?

The Caesar, thus, mentioned in Luke 2:1 is this shrewd but very able emperor of Rome, Gaius Octavian who was not only held in high esteem but was worshipped as “son of a god” and “prince of peace” or “the inaugurator of peace on earth” and “saviour” by the Romans.

Jesus’ birth was during the reign of this Emperor who was considered as the “bringer of peace” and who was worshipped as “divine” and “saviour.”

Only Luke, among the Gospels, emphasizes that Jesus Christ was born during the reign of one who was worshipped as “divine”, “prince of peace” or “son of god”.

The question of who the real “Son of God” or “Prince of Peace” is – was a crucial point for Luke to consider.

Luke 2:1-20 makes it remarkably clear that the birth of Jesus and the joy it brings is much better than Caesar’s.

The words and terms Luke uses to describe the birth of Jesus resonates with the worship of Caesar as “divine” and “prince of peace.”

At Jesus’ birth, there is “great joy” (2:10b) for “all the people” (2:10c) and the baby who is born is a “Saviour” (2:11a).

That is why His birth marks the “beginning” of “good news” (or “gospel”, 2:10b) to the world. Luke’s characteristic use of “today” or “this day” in 2:11 should not be overlooked.

Luke uses this word quite often to suggest the “beginning of the time of messianic salvation.” Its import is that real joy and peace comes only with Jesus not prior to him.

This baby born is the Messiah, the Lord (2:11b). One notable point we notice here is that, for Luke, the baby born in the manger is the Savior because he is the Messiah and the Lord.

His teaching is that with the birth of Jesus, human history enters into a definitive stage.

It is not the exalted and dignified Caesar, adorned with all the honours and titles bestowed on him and issues decrees from the magnificent royal palace in the imperial capital city of Rome, who is the real “prince of peace” and “saviour”.

But the real “Prince of Peace” and “Saviour” is the baby born in the manger wrapped with swaddling clothes in a lowly and insignificant city of Bethlehem and being worshipped by the shepherds.

Looking at the picture presented before us, we see here that Jesus is not what Caesar is.

Caesar has power, honours, royal robes, subjects, throne and dwelling in a royal palace, but Jesus is lying in a manger being wrapped in swaddling clothes surrounded by lowly people.

But the great paradox is that the baby in the manger is greater than the mighty Caesar!

If the birthday of Caesar Octavian was celebrated with great pomp and gaiety by the Romans throughout the Roman “world” then it is only in the birth of Jesus that the real “joy to the world” comes (Luke 2:14).

The messengers of the birth of Octavian were mortal humans but the messengers of the birth of Jesus are “angels” and “a multitude of the heavenly host” (2:13) thereby revealing the more cosmic significance of Jesus’ birth.

The birthday of Octavian resulted in the happiness of the people but the birth of Jesus results in magnification and praise of God (2:13).

Pax Christi (Peace of Christ)

The birth of Jesus reveals the “glory to God” effecting the onset of “peace on earth” (2:14) because He is the only and true “Son of God” because He Himself is “the Lord”. In effect, Caesar is a divinized human while Jesus is the humanized God.

Many people may do marvellous things before humans, and they may be able to bring peace to the people.

Nevertheless, what Luke says here is that such peace and prosperity are momentary but the peace that Jesus ushers in through His birth is the true and permanent peace for human beings because He is the real “Prince of Peace” and “Saviour”.

Hence, Pax Christi is higher and better than Pax Augusta since Jesus’ birth marks the “beginning” of a new relationship (peace) not only among humans but between God and humans.

Photo contributed by FreeBibleimages
Menjiwapong Jamir serves as the Senior Lecturer in New Testament at Allahabad Bible Seminary.